”’Pennsylvania”’, officially, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is one of the states of the United States.

The name of the state is received from the Latin words Penn Sylvania, which means “Penn’s Land and Forests.”
The state of Pennsylvania got this name because the English king Charles II donated the lands of modern Pennsylvania to William Penn. This gift was made to pay off the king’s debt to the father of William Penn, Admiral Penn, in whose honor the new colony was named.

The capital of the state is Harrisburg.

Pennsylvania’s nicknames

Keystone State, Quaker State

Area

Pennsylvania area

Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km2)
Width 283 miles (455 km)
Length 170 miles (273 km)

History

This region has been inhabited by Indian tribes of Delaware, Susquehannock, Iroquois, Erie, and Shonie for centuries. The first European who visited Pennsylvania was Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano. He explored the east coast of North America in 1524. At the beginning of the XVII century, a dispute broke out between England and Holland because of the lands of the state. By the 1630s, Sweden joined the conflict. The territory first came into the possession of the Dutch, and by 1664 finally ceded England.
In the XX century, Pennsylvania was in the group of leaders in the number of coal mines.

In the 18th century, Pennsylvania became a refuge for Europeans who did not agree with the religious and political doctrines of their governments. The ranks of the inhabitants of the colony were replenished by Germans, Scots and Irish, and the Dutch have lived here since the times of New Holland. An agreement was concluded between the Indians and Christians here – an alliance with the people of Leni-Lenape. Then the agreement was violated during the French-Indian War (1754-1763). After its end, the Indians’ dissatisfaction resulted in the “Pontiac Rise,” named for the leader of the Ottawa tribe.

Subsequently, Pennsylvania became the scene of the battles of the Civil War. There, near the Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), a battle took place, which is considered a turning point in the development of the war. Besides, it was Pennsylvania that provided the northerners with everything needed: from food to warships built at local shipyards. The state also performed the same role during World War II.
On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was signed here. At its announcement, residents were called by the ringing of the Liberty Bell at Independence Hall Bell Tower (now it is one of the main symbols of the United States). Here, the delegates of the thirteen first independent states adopted the Constitution of the country, which the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ratified on December 12, 1787, becoming the second state of the Union after Delaware. Before moving to Washington, the USA federal government worked in this city.

The 19th century was the time of the era of the Pennsylvania Oil Fever, which began in 1859 with the drilling of the very first USA well near the town of Titusville. But by the end of the century, the attention of industrialists switched to the extraction of coal and iron ore. The steel industry of the state became the basis for the emergence of powerful financial dynasties. In the 1980s, an industrial crisis caused by a decrease in coal demand turned Pennsylvania from the leading state of the USA Industrial Belt into the economically depressed territory of the Rust Belt of the country. And the state authorities have relied on the development of innovative high-tech production, tourism, and the service sector.

 Demographics

Pennsylvania has more than 12,700,000 people, with an average population density of about 284/sq mi  (110/km2).

The largest cities of Pennsylvania are Philadelphia (about 1,530,000 inhabitants), Pittsburgh (more than 300,000 inhabitants) and Allentown (about 120,000 inhabitants). In the capital of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg city about 50,000 people live.

 TOP 5 Universities

Best Universities in Pennsylvania

* Penn State University
* University of Pennsylvania
* Carnegie Mellon University
* University of Pittsburgh
* Temple University

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